Makki and Madani Surahs
The Qur'an was revealed over 23 years of the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad who was 40 years old when the first verse was revealed in the city of Makkah. The prophet started to preach these verses; initially secretly and later openly. The overarching theme of the Qur’anic verses is the emphasis on the monotheism doctrine in worshiping only one God and opposing the general polytheistic belief of the people of Makkah. Hence, majority opposed this new religion, but gradually adherents increased. The mission of Muhammad continued 13 years in Makkah. The general theme of the verses and chapters revealed in Makkah thus emphasized in establishing logical proofs for monotheism detailing on the attributes of God and His supreme power. This is illustrated often by relating stories of past people and prophets and what happened to them when they rejected the monotheistic message. In general Makkah surahs emphasized the establishment of the monotheism doctrine, the prophethood of Muhammad and the reality of the Day of Judgment. As the people of Makkah were masters of the classical Arabic language, Prophet Muhammad considered this Qur'an – being the words of God- a miracle and challenged the Arabs of Makkah to bring a similar chapter like the Qur'an. Thus, the chapters of Makkah –in addition to the monotheistic tone- had a secondary objective of being literal, rhetorical and linguistic challenge for Arabs. This is evident in selection of strong words, phrases and Arabic constructs in Makki verses.
Later, the prophet migrated to Medina where the people welcomed him and allowed Islam to rule that city. Verses revealed in Medinah started to lay down Islamic law and jurisprudence, in addition to the continuing theme of Islamic monotheism. Medina period witnessed many battles of Islam and eventually Islam expanded to other nearby cities and tribes. In general, Medina surahs emphasized on establishing Islamic laws, ethics, morals, marital and family laws, monetary transactions, and relationship of Islam and Muslims with other world religions.
Following are some characteristics of Makki and Madani chapters as mentioned by scholars. This discussion is based on this book. 
These are general rules that should be considered when talking about Makki or Madani chapters:
- Judgement of Makki or Madani is possible only by authentic verdict of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad who witnessed the period of revelation of these chapters.
- By default, any Makki sura is entirely Makki, unless some verses of it is explicitly mentioned Madani by some authentic report. This is also true for Madani chapters.
- Madani verses can abrogate earlier Madani verses as well as any Makki verse. However, a Makki verse can not abrogate a ruling set by a Madani verse.
- Understanding of Madani chapters should be built on the earlier Makki verses. In general, understanding of any verse must be built on other earlier verses according to thier chronology of revelation.
- Revelation of a particular chapter can be interrupted by verses from other chapters.
Following are some characteristics of Makki verses , No 7 and 8 are stylistic characteristics, and the last 4 are content and subject characteristics:
- Any chapter that has a verse that commands to prostrate to Allah (آيات السجدة) is Makki, except chapters 13 and 22.
- Any chapter that contains the word kalla كلا (never) is Makki, and are found only in the second half of the Qur'an.
- Any chapter that has the phrase ياأيها الناس O Mankind, but does not have the phrase يأيها اللذين آمنوا O you who believe is Makki, except chapter 22.
- All chapters that start with initial letters الحروف المقطعة are Makki, except chapters 2,3 and 13.
- Any chapter that relates the story of Adam and Iblis (i.e., Satan) is Makki, except chapter 2.
- Any chapter that relates the stories of previous prophets and their people is Makki, except chapter 2.
- Short verses, and strong rhetorical style and rythmic sound.
- Repeated use of emphasis, exhortation, analogies and oath.
- Emphasis on the beleif in Allah, the Day of Judgement and description of Hell and Heaven (paradise).
- Call for adherence to good moral and universal characters like truthfullness, kindness to relatives, old and neighbour, etc.
- Argument with the polytheists and refutation of their associating partners with Allah.
- Warning the polytheists through stories of previous messengers when punishment came to thier people when they rejected their message.
Following are some of the stylistic and subject characteristics of Madani suras:
- Mention of 'Jihad' and detailing on its rulings.
- Details of Islamic jurispudence and legal system as well as laws governing family, money transaction, international law and acts of worship
- Mention of 'hypocracy' and dealing with hypocrates.
- Any verse that starts with يا أيها للذين آمنوا O you who believe
- Long verses
- Easy vocabulary
- Arguments with the 'people of the Book' i.e., Jews and Christians.
Following table gives a list of chapters sorted by chapter number, and classified into Makki or Madani according to QuranComplex.com website. The disagreement column  indicates chapters which are disagreed among scholars, but the stronger opinion is still mentioned in the 'Makki or Madani' column.
|Sura No.||Sura Name||Makki or Madani||No. of Verses||Disagreement?|